The Internet’s Humble Beginnings | Tech Talk Today 31

The Internet’s Humble Beginnings | Tech Talk Today 31

We look back at how the Internet was born, from its humble beginnings and clunky interfaces to the first podcaster and creator of Internet Radio.

Plus who created the first packet switching network, developed TCP/IP and why.

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Show Notes:

ARPANET – Advanced Research Projects Agency Network

The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was one of the world’s first operational packet switching networks, the first network to implement TCP/IP, and the progenitor of what was to become the global Internet. The network was initially funded by the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA, later DARPA) within the U.S. Department of Defense for use by its projects at universities and research laboratories in the US. The packet switching of the ARPANET, together with TCP/IP, would form the backbone of how the Internet works. The packet switching was based on concepts and designs by American engineer Paul Baran, Welsh scientist Donald Davies[1][2] and Lawrence Roberts of the Lincoln Laboratory.[3] The TCP/IP communication protocols were developed for ARPANET by computer scientists Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf, and also incorporated some designs from Louis Pouzin.

Happy birthday, Mosaic: 21 years of the graphical web browsert

Mosaic was the first truly popular web browser.

That’s not to say that Mosaic was easy to use. It wasn’t. In the early to mid 1990s, simply getting on the internet was still something of a black art. Windows, for example, didn’t natively support the internet’s fundamental protocol, TCP/IP, until Windows 95 appeared. If you wanted TCP/IP on Windows before that, you needed to use the arcane but absolutely vital Trumpet Winsocket program, and find an internet service provider (ISP).

NeXT Computers’ Role In the Creation of the Web Browser

A NeXT Computer and its object oriented development tools and libraries were used by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau at CERN to develop the world’s first web server software, CERN HTTPd, and also used to write the first web browser, WorldWideWeb.

Gopher protocol

The Gopher protocol /ˈɡfər/ is a TCP/IP application layer protocol designed for distributing, searching, and retrieving documents over the Internet. The Gopher protocol was strongly oriented towards a menu-document design and presented an alternative to the World Wide Web in its early stages, but ultimately HTTP became the dominant protocol. The Gopher ecosystem is often regarded as the effective predecessor of the World Wide Web.

How Did Internet Radio Start?

Carl Malamud founded the first Internet-only radio station, The Internet Multicasting Service (IMS), in 1993. IMS broadcasted from offices at the National Press Club Building in Washington, D.C. A non-profit organization, IMS depended largely on charitable contributions for its budget.

IMS started broadcasting in 1994, offering several hours of weekly programs including a “Geek of the Week” interview feature, an audio feed from Monitor Radio and CBC News, speeches from the floor of Congress and performances from the Kennedy Center. IMS later expanded to include an online presence for groups ranging from the National Press Club to the Red Sage Restaurant and City Lights Books.

Like many other Internet offerings, IMS pushed the limits of public access to government information by offering patent documents and filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission online and at no charge. By 1995, IMS expanded its offerings and broadcast 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

Unfortunately, in 1996, IMS shut down. Visitors to the IMS web page will see broadcast concluded because “we finished our work and disbanded on April 1, 1996.” Malamud said the organization had run out of money and he wanted to get back to working on the net. “Now there are craftsmen out there who know their tools much better than I do,” Malamud said in an interview with John Schwartz. But IMS made its mark on the Internet. By the time it disbanded, Internet radio stations were numerous and many more would arrive.

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